Your heart pushes and contracts blood through the arteries, making it move across the whole body. This force of blood on arteries create pressure, known as systolic blood pressure. Blood must reach every cell, because it is carrying oxygen and nutrients to them. The important thing you must know is that blood pressure is changing its values several times per day. And there are many factors who affect on it. The normal systolic blood pressure is 120, if it is higher (120-139) you have high blood pressure (prehypertension). If your pressure is higher than 140, you have hypertension! This is a serious problem, because it can cause heart disease.
The diastolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries when the heart is resting between beats. A normal diastolic pressure is less than 80. If it is higher than 90, you have high blood pressure (hypertension), if it is between 80 and 89, you have prehypertension.
Blood pressure is measured with a sphygmomanometer. Doctor or nurse will use a stethoscope for listening blood flow in your arteries. But, there are digital gadgets for measuring your blood pressure. They are much easier to use and they are cheap, but not as precise as the sphygmomanometer.
You can have high blood pressure for years without any symptoms. The common symptoms are headache, dizzy spells and nosebleeds. Although, you don’t have any of these symptoms, the high blood pressure can damage your blood vessels. Some diseases can be responsible for hypertension, like: thyroid problems, adrenal gland tumors, kidney problems and any more. But in most cases the real cause of high blood pressure is unknown! One of the known factors for high blood pressure is smoking and alcohol abuse.